The Trauma-Stressor and Dissociative Disorders Project

From Dissociative Identity Disorder, Dissociation and Trauma Disorders
Jump to: navigation, search


Most popular pages:

Subjective psychological traumaThe most fundamental effect of trauma is dissociation, so we define trauma as the event(s) that cause dissociation. <ref name=Howell2011/>{{Rp|75}} The original trauma in those with dissociative identity disorder was failure of secure attachment with a primary attachment figure in early childhood. <ref name=Howell2011/>{{Rp|83}} is responsible for the complex dissociative disorders as well as the trauma-stressor disorders in the DSM-5. This project offers the most recent facts and theory presented by the top experts in the field of trauma, dissociation, neurology and related sciences.

Dissociative disorders

The Dissociative Disorders (DD), include dissociative identity disorder (DID), dissociative amnesia (DA), depersonalization disorder/derealization (DPD), other specified dissociative disorder (OSDD), and unspecified dissociative disorder.

Trauma and Stressor-related disorders

Trauma and Stressor-related Disorders include reactive attachment disorder (RADOriginally the only attachment disorder listed in the [[DSM]]. A stressor-related disorder, disinhibited social engagement disorder was originally a subtype of RAD.), disinhibited social engagement disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), acute stress disorder (ASD), adjustment disorders, other specified trauma and stressor-related disorder and unspecified trauma and stressor-related disorder.

Differentiating between disorders with structural dissociation

Structural dissociation of the personality is a term that describes what occurs when a subjective trauma takes place that an individual cannot integrate. The following are disorders that are considered to fall within the boundaries of structural dissociation of the personality: posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), dissociative-PTSD (D-PTSD), dissociative D-BPD, otherwise specified dissociative disorder(OSDD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID).

This is an introduction, see the page on structural dissociation for referenced and more detailed information.

The difference between PTSD and D-PTSD

The DSM-5 has opted to not use the popular term complex-PTSD (C-PTSD), and so it's not used here either except as a historic term unless it's included in future updates of the DSM-5. The DSM-5 has added a category called dissociative-PTSD (D-PTSD). The difference between posttraumatic stress disorder and D-PTSD is that the later is a product of more than one unprocessed trauma and those trauma are highly symptomatic. Posttraumatic stress disorder can become dissociative-PTSD if trauma continues to accumulate and are unprocessed.

This is an introduction, see the page on D-PTSD for referenced and more detailed information.

Dissociative type of borderline personality disorder (D-BPD)

The dissociative type of borderline personality disorder (D-BPD) correlates with disorganized attachment, childhood trauma, and there are often signs of child abuse prior to age eight. The dissociative factor comes from an unprocessed trauma, but the trauma occurs after the individual already has borderline personality disorder. DissociationDissociation is a compartmentalization of experience, where elements of a trauma are not integrated into a unified sense of the self. <ref name=Dell2009/>{{Rp|4-810, 127}}The lay persons idea of [[dissociation]], that which exists in the normal mind, is not what is referred to in this document. <ref name=Dell2009/>{{Rp|233-234}} is not part of the etiologyThe study of the cause of a disorder or disease. In the case of dissociative identity disorder, early and severe childhood trauma, especially abuse is considered to be the cause. <ref name=ISSTD.org/> {{See also| Etiology}} of borderline personality disorder, but it can make the disorder more complex and harder to treat.

This is an introduction, see the category on structural dissociation for referenced and more detailed information.

The differences between MPDPrior to the DSM-IV, <ref name=DSMIV/> <ref name=DSM5Deskref/> dissociative identity disorder was known as multiple personality disorder, which was from 1980-1994. The International Classification of Diseases,(ICD) still uses this label, <ref name=ICD10/> even though the ICD-11 is expected to change it. The term is misleading. No one can have more than one personality, nor is the disorder a personality disorder. {{See also| Multiple Personality Disorder}} and DID and between DDNOS and OSDD are important

Otherwise specified dissociative disorder (OSDD) is not the same thing as the now defunct description of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS) that is described in the, now historic DSM-IV. The DSM-5 published late in 2013 clearly does not use terminology suggesting that the switches seen in otherwise specified dissociative disorder are between distinct states. Instead, it uses the terminology "discontinuities in sense of selfNormal sense of self is experienced as alterations in consciousness, but the sense of self remains stable and consistent. In individuals with a Dissociative disorder the sense of self alternates and is inconsistent across time and experience. <ref name=Dell2009/>{{Rp|160}} There is no unified sense of self. and agency. The criteria for dissociative identity disorder, on the other hand, uses the terminology "distinct personality states." For those that understand structural dissociation, the distinct personality states, in brevity, are the ANP and the discontinuities in sense of self are the EP.

DID is not a more severe form of OSDD

Dissociative identity disorder is not a form of otherwise specified dissociative disorder where a child was abused more, which is a common misinterpretation. Dissociative identity disorder is a distinct disorder unto only itself where there is disorganized attachment and unprocessed trauma stemming from infancy. Although it's often purposeful abuse there are exceptions, and a very young child, must feel alone with their pain on a consistent basis.

This is an introduction, see the category on dissociative identity disorder, otherwise specified dissociative disorder and the DSM for referenced and more detailed information

The difference between OSDD and DID

Otherwise specified dissociative disorder (OSDD) is associated with disorganized attachment and is often related to child abuse, and if there is abuse it can be by someone outside the home, as long as that individual has isolated access to the child several hours each week. Otherwise specified dissociative disorder can occur even if a child is not traumatized in the first 7-8 years of life, but the child will still have a disorganized attachment due to neglect, such as caretakers that are not overtly abusive, but might have "problems" so they cannot not give the child what it needs to form an attachment. The disorder mimics dissociative identity disorder) when the less than distinct parts (EP) are elaborated, as is seen in ritual abuseTypically involves a combination of extreme abuses, including sexual, physical, emotional, psychological and spiritual abuse and is usually carried out by groups rather than lone individuals. May include murder and torture, often to near death. Torture may be used along side mind control and brainwashing techniques; combined these can be used to further control a person who has developed dissociative parts or identities in order to cope with the abuse. Survivors of ritual abuse report that most groups force them to commit horrific acts including harming others, including other children, vulnerable adults or pets, and being drugged. Miller (2012){{Rp|12}} Types of abuse used have been compared to the torture and brainwashing techniques used on political prisoners. (Matthew (2001)), leading to many cases of misdiagnosis. As a general rule (there are exceptions), if there is programmingMind control programming only exists is specific to other specified dissociative disorder. It is not seen in dissociative identity disorder except under rare cases. Programming is the act of installing internal, pre-established reactions to external stimuli so that a person will automatically react in a predetermined manner to things like an auditory, visual or tactile signal or perform a specific set of action according to a date and/or time. This is achieved through using extreme, usually life-threatening trauma such as torture to create disassociated identities during childhood. <ref name=Miller2012/>{{Rp|viii, 19}} These states are created to be programmed so that the person with otherwise specified dissociative disorder engage in activities chosen by the abusive group (for example, a cult) without any conscious awareness of it and without a conscious choice on behalf of a state, for example activities like sex slavery, murder or spying. {{See also| Ritual_abuse}} This is not possible to do with people with dissociative identity disorder, and thus is the reason for cults creating members with otherwise specified dissociative disorder. or ritual abuse, no matter how elaborate, the individual parts (EP) have become, then the disorder is otherwise specified dissociative disorder and not dissociative identity disorder. Military experimentation may be an exception to this since the product desired is different from that of cults. [OSDD|Otherwise specified dissociative disorder]] is a distinct disorder in itself. It is identified when one distinct part (ANP) has control, with two or more less than distinct parts (EP) switching in the background. On an fMRIA type of neuroimaging. Neuroimaging is an approach that allows researchers to view areas of the brain that become active during behavioral events such as emotion, perception and cognition. It is part of the science of in psychophysiology.<ref name=Andreassi2010/> scan otherwise specified dissociative disorder is seen as one constant light with other lights flashing on and off behind it like a musical symphony. This symphony of lights indicates the brains ability to move rapidly from one less than distinct part (EP) to the next.

See the site page on dissociative identity disorder and structural dissociation for referenced and more detailed information.

DID is not a more severe form of OSDD

The differences between otherwise specified dissociative disorder and dissociative identity disorder, on the surface look like a matter of severity, but that actually has nothing to do with it. They are different disorders. In all dissociative disorders there are dissociative boundaries around the parts (AND and EP), but the boundaries in dissociative identity disorder are more complex including the chemical, neurological and solid makeup of them. They contain, replicate, and isolate most things including memory. They are also unyielding in their phobia of each other, until a great deal of therapeutic work has been done. Overtime many with dissociative identity disorder process their trauma memories and break down the dissociative boundaries, a little bit at a time increasing communication between the parts. This is called the integration process. When all parts can freely communicate with each other it's called unification. This process of integration is what all the dissociative disorders have in common. When an individual has dissociative identity disorder their fMRI scan is truly unique. There is not a symphony of lights at play with one distinct state present (ANP) as is seen in otherwise specified dissociative disorder, but instead there are bold bright lights that can be seen slowly switching, showing that two or more of the parts (ANP) are highly distinct.

See the site page on dissociative identity disorder, integration and structural dissociation for referenced and more detailed information.

Menu

width=700

More

DSM-5 Category: Dissociative Disorders

The DSM-5, was released May, 2013 and the DSM-5 committees have settled on the following categories:

  • Dissociative identity disorder (DID)
  • Dissociative amnesia (DA), with or without dissociative fuguepsychogenic fugueA temporary loss of personal identity due to trauma, reclassified as dissociative amnesia within the DSM-5. Dissociative amnesia includes dissociative fugue as a subtype, since fugue is a rare disorder that always involves amnesia, but does not always include confused wandering or loss of personality identity. <ref name=DSMIV/> <ref name=DSM5Deskref/> <ref name=Spiegel2013/>Dissociative amnesia (DA) was previously called psychogenic amnesia is a form of temporary amnesia that presents often in traumatic situations; for example in car accidents or victim or witness of a violent crime. Dissociative Amnesia is described in the DSM as a disorder that causes significant distress or impairment in functioning, such as when a person cannot remember significant events that happened to them. <ref name=ISSTD.org/> (DF)
  • Depersonalization/derealization disorder
  • Other specified dissociative disorder (OSDD, formerly dissociative disorder not otherwise specified)
  • Unspecified dissociative disorder (UDD)

DSM-5 Category: Trauma and Stressor-Related Disorders

Dsm-5.png
The Trauma and Stressor-Related Disorders are:

Note: Complex posttraumatic stress disorder per say is similar to dissociative-PTSD in the DSM-5. The only exception is that it is not clearly stated that the etiology is due to childhood trauma, which is the case when the term complex-PTSD is used. The term compex-PTSD is currently in the draft version of the ICD-11 manual.

Table of contents

  • Abuse: adult
  • Abuse: child
  • Acute stress disorder
  • Amnesia: memory loss and losing time
  • Adjustment disorder and styles
  • Alternate identity Types of altersAltered states of consciousnessExchangeable terms include parts, dissociative parts, personality states, self-states, states, identities, selves, or ego states. Alters are present only in those with dissociative identity disorder or similar presentations of other specified dissociative disorder, where the parts of the personality are highly dissociated and isolated. No alter, including the host alter, is a complete personality, even though an alter might feel as if they are. <ref name=Howell2011/>{{Rp|55-67}}Alters are psychodynamically interacting parts, each with their own separate centers of subjectivity, identity, autonomy, and sense of personal history. <ref name=Howell2011/>{{Rp|55}}An individual with dissociative identity disorder may have few or many |alters, which include a variety of ages, cross gender, animal or objects, with coconsciousness (see coconsciousness) at varying degrees, and [[communication]] can be limited to one direction. (one way amnesia) <ref name=Dell2009/>{{Rp|301}}
  • Betrayal trauma theory
  • Books: trauma and dissociation
  • Borderline personality disorder
  • Coconsciousness between alters (process of integration)
  • Comorbiddisorder and dissociative identity disorder
  • Conversion disorder physical symptoms
  • Denial of mental disorder
  • Society denial and impact of trauma and child abuse
  • Diagnosis of mental disorders includes DES, MID, SCID-D
  • Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders DSM-5
  • Disinhibited social engagement disorder
  • Dissociation
  • Somatoform disorders and dissociation
  • Dissociative disorders overview
  • Dissociative symptoms
  • Eating disorders related to the trauma and dissociative disorders
  • Etiology of dissociative identity disorder
  • Eye movement desensitization and processing (EMDRA valid psychotherapeutic approach, especially for treating trauma. <ref name=EMDR.com/> <ref name=ISSTD.org/>)
  • Grounding techniques
  • Category:Healing
  • Historyof dissociative identity disorder
  • Host A part in executive controlThe state that has control of an individual at that moment has executive control, and the dissociated state most often in executive control is commonly called the host. <ref name=Boon2011/>{{Rp|27}} of the self
  • Integration process to unificationAlso known as final fusion. See 'integration'.Integration (state of unification) occurs in the minds of all individuals and is a process rather than an end product. "If integration is impaired, the result is chaos, rigidity, or both. Chaos and rigidity can then be seen as the red flags of blocked integration and impaired development of the mind." <ref name=Siegel2012/>{{Rp|9}} The natural process of the mind is to link differential parts (distinct modes of information processing) into a functional and unified self. No child has unified personality when born, in fact, they need years of sufficient nurturing for the parts of their personality to integrate. <ref name=Siegel2012/>{{Rp|394}} "Integration is more like making a fruit salad than like making a smoothie: It requires that elements retain their individual uniqueness while simultaneously linking to other components of the system. The key is balance of differentiation and linkage." <ref name=Siegel2012/>{{Rp|199}} Integration is the normal process that occurs in early childhood, but if interrupted by trauma, the child may not be able to integrate. <ref name=Howell2011/>{{Rp|143}} of the self
  • International classification of diseases (ICD-10)
  • International Society for the Study of Trauma and Dissociation
  • Memory and understanding unprocessed trauma memory
  • Related diagnoses: BPD, Bipolar, Schizophrenia
  • Personality
  • Polyfragmented dissociative identity disorder
  • PTSD, complex PTSD and dissociative PTSD
  • Ritual abuse and mind controlMind control programming only exists is specific to other specified dissociative disorder. It is not seen in dissociative identity disorder except under rare cases. Programming is the act of installing internal, pre-established reactions to external stimuli so that a person will automatically react in a predetermined manner to things like an auditory, visual or tactile signal or perform a specific set of action according to a date and/or time. This is achieved through using extreme, usually life-threatening trauma such as torture to create disassociated identities during childhood. <ref name=Miller2012/>{{Rp|viii, 19}} These states are created to be programmed so that the person with otherwise specified dissociative disorder engage in activities chosen by the abusive group (for example, a cult) without any conscious awareness of it and without a conscious choice on behalf of a state, for example activities like sex slavery, murder or spying. {{See also| Ritual_abuse}} This is not possible to do with people with dissociative identity disorder, and thus is the reason for cults creating members with otherwise specified dissociative disorder.
  • Schizophrenia
  • Seizure-like movements common in complex dissociative disorders
  • Self harm
  • Structural dissociation of the personality
  • Terminology for trauma and dissociative disorders
  • Therapist
  • Trauma which is psychological
  • Trauma and Stressor-related disorders
  • Unified sense of self also known as being fully integrated, fusion or unification.
  • Videos: trauma and dissociation

Peer to peer tips for living with dissociative identity disorder

Child abuse and the Trauma and Dissociation Project

Infant.jpg

Child abusers can go to great length to hide emotional, physical and sexual abuse they enact upon the young and innocent, but the fact remains that child abuse is common, and is a hidden epidemic. Abused individuals suffer shame, and often blame themselves for the acts perpetuated upon them. An abusive adult which a child relies on to survive cannot be easily ignored, and so the relationship changes the abused individual. Abusers can go to great lengths to prevent their victims from recalling abuse. Some are masters of this. Freyd's "betrayal trauma theory" suggests dissociative amnesia is an adaptive response to childhood abuse. [Dissociation|Dissociation]] is a complex psychophysiologicalPsychophysiology refers to "the science which studies the physiology of psychic functions through the brain-body-interrelationships of the living organism in conjunction with the environment" <ref name=Mangina1983/>{{Rp|22}} Psychophysiology is concerned with measuring of psychological responses in order to understand behavior, including activities such as reactions to stress, sleep, memory, learning, perception or any activities that psychologists are inclined to study. <ref name=Andreassi2010/>{{Rp|Preface}} This includes measuring heart rate, biofeedback, neuroimaging, such as positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), electroencephalography (EEG) and event-related potential (ERP) approaches to studying the brain and body, including the nervous system, memory, neurotransmitters, motor functions (movement) and brain wave activity for example.<ref name=Andreassi2010/> process that changes the accessibility of memory and knowledge, integration of behavior, and states, both distinct (ANP) and less than distinct (EP). Dissociative identity disorder and otherwise specified disorder are the ultimate examples of how overwhelming life events that occur can affect"a person's present emotional responsiveness, which can be inferred from facial expressions" including both the degree and range of expressive behavior. This can also be shown in tone of voice, hand and body movements. <ref name=Sadock2008/>{{Rp| 6}} the human mind, and how dissociative mechanisms can provide temporary adaptive protection from child abuse and or other subjective trauma.

This page is an introduction, see the following pages for more information: structural dissociation, otherwise specified disorder, and dissociative identity disorder.

Edit this site

We encourage those with knowledge of the trauma-stressor and dissociative disorders to join our project and help to create an accurate and helpful information based wiki. To do so, simply make an account and review our editor guidelines. All information is to be referenced except our section on peer to peer tips. See the bottom of the table of contents at the bottom of this page for the peer section.

New Editor Information

Other branches of the Trauma and Dissociation Project

Dissociative Identity Disorder.org is a peer written site, reviewed by a health care professional. The site offers up to date information on all aspects of dissociative identity disorder.

Suggested links

We strongly encourage all mental health professionals and students to join the International Society for the Study of Trauma and Dissociation (ISST-D) as well as the Society for Traumatic Stress Studies which offers access to reliable research, education, certification and more. The ISST-D is responsible for the professional publication titled: Journal of Trauma and Dissociation. The ISTSS equivalent is the Journal of Traumatic Stress, which focuses more on PTSD than dissociative disorders.

Credit

Transitory has donated the time and knowledge to create this work space. Thank you Transitory!

Googleplaybadgesmall.png Kindle-fire-logo.png